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A standard open differential is a component that transfers the rotational energy (torque) produced by the engine to the wheels. As the vehicle is making its turn, the inside wheel tends to rotate more slowly than the outer. If either of the wheel loses contact with the ground and is in a 'floating' state, the vehicle will lose all its traction capabilities and will not accelerate forward. (This open differential is only designed to provide smooth turning characteristics of the vehicle, thus made for the outside wheel to rotate more revolutions than the innter when making a turn.) *Assuming that Open Diff = Standard Factory Equipped Differential.
The Purpose of an LSD
An LSD system eliminates the uneven power distribution which tends to apply more rotational drivetrain energy to the wheel that has less grip. During aggressive driving (involving lots of turns), an LSD unit efficiently distributes the torque from the wheel with less grip capabilities to the wheel that has more, enabling more traction for the vehicle. (Basically, it eliminates the difference in rotation between the left and right wheel during a vehicle turn, with even power distribution to each wheel).
There are many components inside the LSD casing, but the effectiveness of the unit (locking rate) depends on how much pressure is applied as well as the contact surface area of the clutch plates. The effectiveness (locking rate) can be altered by several ways. Changing the cam angle of the pressure ring effectively works to change pressure and reaction time of locking, also changing the surface area of the clutch plates by its size or quantity to manage how much pressure is applied.
< The Difference Between 1 Way, 1.5 Way, and 2 Way >
CUSCO is the only manufacturer which provides a setting for all three options!
1. 1 - Way: The LSD is effective when load is applied to the differential (applied throttle load), and is not
effective when load is not applied.
2. 1.5 - Way: The LSD is effective when load is applied to the differential (applied throttle load), and is
half-effective when load is not applied.
3. 2 - Way: The LSD is effective both ways when there is load or no load applied to the differential.
Initial Torque: The initial torque of an LSD unit is ideally measured at its static pressure resistance. It is possible to measure when the LSD unit is equipped on a vehicle, however added variables that contribute to more resistance such as gears, bearings, and oil seals may vary to the final result. Another adding variable is the gear oil, which increases resistance depending on its temperature.There are a lot of benefits from low initial torque setting; low power loss, low chattering noise, improved durability as clutch plates are lower pressured than type MZ ‘s initial torque, and higher efficiency with smoother oil flow between plates. The primary difference between RS, MZ, and Hybrid units is the applied initial torque amount and the activation direction. The MZ model LSD is designed where the activation pressure opposes the direction of the initial torque with the utilization of a cone spring. The LSD operation first becomes engaged when the opposing pressures start working against one another.
In the RS Model, the activation pressure is applied to the same direction of the initial torque with the utilizationof a coil spring. Therefore, the initial torque is set lower than the MZ model enables a smoother and quicker initial clutch plates engagement from a non operational to a fully functioning state even despite a low initial torque rating is set. The virtues of a low initial torque setting is that it enables a smooth turn even while the LSD mechanism is not activated. Because of the coil spring design, it provides overall gentle and stable operation. The Hybrid type has the smallest initial torque of all due to larger diameter coil spring. The low initial torque which against to activation direction make the Hybrid LSD took advantage from RS and MZ.
The differences between the method of initial torque engagements between the Type RS and Type MZ were explained previously. This area explains more in-depth of the changes experienced between the two initial torque settings.
The Type MZ LSD has a higher initial torque setting than the Type RS & Hybrid LSD from the factory. The graph below displays the difference between the effects of the initial torque and the wear of the internal components (clutch disks). The data was taken from two identical vehicles and conditions, during an LSD overhaul.
Stronger load (pressure) is applied to the disks in the Type MZ since it is set at a high initial torque rating from the factory. Furthermore, the clutch disks and elasticity in the cone springs decrease faster, resulting
in a shorter lifespan, compared to the RS & Hybrid. Overall, the Type MZ will require more overhaul (rebuild).
The pressure (load) applied to each clutch disk on the RS & Hybrid is weaker than the MZ model especially at its lowest initial torque setting and also when the LSD is not engaged. The coil springs applies the
pressure to the clutch disks at all time, resulting in minimal loss of initial torque over time. The overhaul (rebuild) cycle is not as often as the MZ.
Cusco’s Clutch disks (MZ plate) grooves are cut radially enabling instant oil movement, thus improving efficiency and durability. The pressure ring surfaces are polished for an even contact with the MZ plate and with Cusco’s original design Oil Through system, it enhances the efficiency and performance of this LSD in comparison to other products available in the market. Thus, putting the Cusco LSD on top of the market in quality and championship winning results in an untouchable class of its own.
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